The Cell Cycle in the Central Nervous System (Contemporary Neuroscience)

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Table of Contents What is Neuroscience? What is Neuroscience? Neuroscience is a study devoted to understanding the nervous system and its core component, the brain. This investigation can occur at multiple levels, from molecular synapses and cellular networks to cognition and behavior.

Because of this, methods of inquiry and research are drawn from a number of disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, physiology, biomedicine, behavioral science, cognitive psychology, electrical engineering, computer science and artificial intelligence. Neuroscientists hope to understand how cellular circuits enable us to read and speak, how we bond with other humans, how we learn and retain information, how we experience pain, and how we feel motivation. They also hope to find causes for devastating disorders of the brain and body, as well as ways to prevent or cure them.

The Nervous System The human nervous system is an extensive network of specialized cells that allow us to perceive, understand and act on the world around us. Neurons are the main functional unit of this network. They can generate electrical signals to quickly transmit information over long distances and pass them on to many other neurons.

Glial cells support this network by cleaning, regulating, protecting, healing and insulating the neurons and their connections. At the core of the nervous system, with over trillion connections, is the human brain. Messages are relayed to the brain via the spinal cord, which runs down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part. The nervous system is separated in two classes: the central and peripheral nervous systems. The blood-brain barrier also prevents many toxins from entering the brain.

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The CNS acts as the control centre, sending and receiving information to and from muscles, glands, organs and others systems in the body through the Peripheral Nervous System. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood—brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries.

The PNS includes a sensory division and a motor division. Sensory Division Also known as the afferent conducting inwards division, the sensory division receives sensory information from the body and sends it inwards to the CNS. Motor Division Also knows as the efferent conducting outwards division, the motor division receives information from the CNS and sends it out to the body.

The sensory and motor divisions each include a part of the somatic system and the autonomic system. The somatic sensory receptors receive information from the senses and send it to the CNS while the somatic motor division sends information from the CNS to control the actions of the skeletal muscles.

Autonomic Nervous System The autonomic nervous system primarily regulates involuntary or unconscious activity such as heart rate, breathing, pupil dilation, regulating glands and internal organs, blood pressure, digestion, and many other chemical processes that keep our body working. The autonomic sensory receptors receive information from these systems and send it to the CNS while the autonomic motor division sends information from the CNS to these systems.

Although the word autonomic from autonomy means involuntary or unconscious, some of these activities are perceived and can be controlled consciously. The autonomic motor division is divided into two complimentary subsystems: the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system. Each is constantly working to shift the body to more prepared states and more relaxed states.

The constant shifting of control between these two systems keeps the body ready for any situation. The sympathetic system quickens the heart rate and breathing to increase oxygen, dilates pupils for better vision, reduces digestion to conserve energy, and prepares the muscles of the body to either defend or escape.

Damir Janigro (Author of The Cell Cycle in the Central Nervous System)

This system is not only active for life-threatening situations; a project deadline or an urgent email might be stressful enough to trigger it. It slows the heart rate, stimulates digestion and other metabolic processes. This system is slow acting, unlike its counterpart, and may take several minutes or even longer to get the body back to a relaxed state after a stressful situation. Receptors and Effectors At the farthest branches of this network there are two basic types of neurons: receptors and effectors.

Receptors are part of the sensory division as they receive information about changes in the environment. Effectors are part of the motor division as they produce changes in the body which can in turn effect the outside world. Below is a diagram showing how signals move through the nervous system Subdivisions of the Nervous System This work by Cenveo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

CC BY Neurons Neurons are the cells that form a framework for communication throughout the nervous system. They can come in several shapes and sizes depending on their specialized functions but all neurons will have axons and dendrites that protrude from the cell body.

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  4. Dendrites Most neurons have many short dendrites that receive signals, sending them inward towards the cell body as electrical impulses. Axons Most neurons have a single axon that typically sends electrical impulses outwards away from the cell body. Axons can vary in length from extremely short to over 1 m to reach from the base of your spine to your ankle. Susan G. Amara, Ph.

    Work in her laboratory has focused on the structure, function, and cellular physiology of neurotransmitter transporters, including the biogenic amine transporters, major targets for psychostimulant drugs and antidepressants. Rita J. She leads groups of scientists focused on discovering and developing therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis, neurodegeneration and CNS rare diseases.

    Prior to joining Pfizer, Dr. Balice-Gordon and her laboratory have studied the cell-cell signaling mechanisms underlying synapse formation and maintenance, the mechanisms underlying neuromuscular development and disease and the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying autoimmune CNS disorders that affect cognition and behavior. She has authored over scientific papers, has been the recipient of several awards and honors, has given hundreds of invited research talks around the world, and has chaired or served on many NIH, national and international committees and study sections, and on the editorial board of several leading scientific journals.

    She was continuously funded by the NIH for more than 30 years.

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    Daniel J. Burch, M. He was appointed to his current position in September Prior to that, Dr. Canet-Aviles completed post-doctoral programs at the Mayo Medical school in Neuroscience, at the National Institutes on Aging Laboratory of Neurogenetics and a final industry post-doctoral position at Elan Inc. She leads the Alzheimer's Association International Research Grant Program, the world's flagship nonprofit initiative to advance Alzheimer's science.

    What Is Neuroscience?

    She also leads the Alzheimer's Association Research Roundtable, a consortium of scientists from the academic world, industry and international public agencies collaborating to overcome universal barriers to progress in developing Alzheimer's treatments. Carrillo's core areas of expertise include the emerging effort to identify biomarkers, measurable indicators of underlying physical changes linked to Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, through brain imaging, spinal fluid protein analysis and other strategies. She also spearheads Association involvement in the Biomarkers Consortium, a private-public partnership to accelerate biomarker development, and the Alzheimer's Association Quality Control Program for CSF Biomarkers, an effort to facilitate cross-institutional consistency in analyzing Alzheimer's-related spinal fluid proteins.

    Carrillo is among the internationally recognized authors of new Alzheimer's disease diagnostic guidelines and criteria jointly issued in by the U. She represents the Association on the Medical Advisory Council of Genworth Financial, a longstanding Alzheimer's Association strategic alliance partner. Under Dr. Coetzee was a major force in raising funds for the accomplishment of those efforts. Subsequently, he held various positions, including Director of Research Initiatives and Outreach, Associate Vice President of Research Initiatives and Outreach, and Vice President of Discovery Partnerships where he assumed responsibility for the development, launch and leadership of Fast Forward in , a Society initiative that continues to break down barriers that impede commercial development, clinical trials, and ultimate patient availability of new treatments for all forms of MS.

    Research articles by Dr. Coetzee has been a requested panelist and presenter at multiple conferences and summits, and testified at several Congressional hearings in Washington, DC. At Northwestern University, she is a faculty fellow of the Institute for Policy Research and professor of human development and social policy in the School of Education and Social Policy, with a courtesy appointment in the department of political science. Her research focuses on the interrelationships between public opinion and social policy, the politics of public policy, public deliberation, and the dynamics of public support for programs for older Americans, particularly Social Security.

    From —, she was IPR's director. She has been a visiting scholar at Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris Sciences Po in —05, president of the Gerontological Society of America in ; a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in ; and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation in — He was a faculty member in the Biology Department at Boston University for ten years where his research employed novel computational methods to study the genetic basis of cell polarity in vertebrate cells, such as neurons.

    From he was the Director of the Developmental Neurobiology Program at the National Science Foundation and in moved to the position of Deputy Director for the Division of Biological Infrastructure, which supports training programs and the development of research tools for the Biological Sciences. Since April of , Dr.

    In Dr. His subsequent work on the role of COMT and BDNF in human brain function, cognition, and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders was highlighted in Science in the first runner up Breakthrough of the Year in Bennett Award from the Society for Biological Psychiatry. Egan joined Merck in where he has worked on a number of development programs focused on schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. He is a member of the Society for Biological Psychiatry, a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, and has published over papers in peer reviewed journals.

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    Gordon, M. NIMH is the lead federal agency for research on mental disorders. Gordon pursued a combined M. Medical school coursework in psychiatry and neuroscience convinced him that the greatest need, and greatest promise, for biomedical science was in these areas. During his Ph. Michael Stryker, Dr. Gordon pioneered the methods necessary to study brain plasticity in the mouse visual system.

    Gordon went to Columbia University for his psychiatry residency and research fellowship because of the breadth and depth of the research opportunities there. Working with Dr.