History Of Law In Japan Since 1868
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The preemptive strike bought Japan time — it took the United States, many times its superior in industrial strength, a full year to gain the offensive on Japan. Japan's string of early successes — the Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya and Singapore, and the Dutch East Indies — left its navy scattered across the Pacific while its army was bogged down in China. When the United States recovered its forces lost in Pearl Harbor, its navy and army were able to conduct an "island-hopping strategy" of cutting off the Japanese commands one by one from their supply routes.
By , the U. Its cities devastated by fire bombing, its economy barely functioning and its people on the brink of starvation, the Japanese government still held out hope that with the assistance of the Russians, Swiss, or Swedes they would be able to negotiate an end to the war. Unaware of the secret agreement among Allies at Yalta, Japan was shocked when Russia too entered the war against Japan. Two days earlier, the United States had dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, a medium-size industrial city.
History of law in Japan since / edited by Wilhelm Röhl | National Library of Australia
The day after the Russian declaration of war, the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, the port city where Japan had first opened itself to Westerners. Japan agreed to unconditional surrender and the emperor himself went on the radio to make the announcement of surrender to the Japanese people.
For the next seven years, Allied powers occupied Japan. To that end, in a new constitution was adopted with two key provisions: sovereignty was transferred from the emperor to the people, and Japan as a nation renounced war and the right to build a military force. Under land reform, tenant farmers were given the land they worked and industrial workers were allowed to form trade unions. Democracy was popularized in the media and schools, and the "moral training" that had fostered extreme nationalism was abolished.
- Tokyo to Kyoto via Hakone.
- Economic history of Japan - Wikipedia?
Most of the reforms made under the Occupation have been retained by Japan. The United States changed some of the more liberal provisions it had encouraged early in the Occupation as it grew more fearful of Communism in the Cold War.
With American support, Japan rebuilt many of its wartime industries to supply U. In , the U. Occupation of Japan ended and by the Japanese economy had regained its highest prewar production levels. A stable political system was also established with the conservative and pro-American Liberal Democratic Party's control of the government. From the sixties through the mid-eighties domestic politics were stable; the Liberal Democratic Party maintained a solid majority in the Diet parliament and emphasized close relations with the United States.
Japan also achieved record economic growth — averaging 10 percent a year until the seventies. Its economy grew from one less productive than Italy to the third largest in the world, behind only the United States and the Soviet Union. Growth was especially strong in heavy industry, such as steel, chemicals and machinery, and in advanced technology.
Almost totally dependent on imports for food and energy, Japan began to face increasing protectionism abroad and serious pollution problems at home. Although Japan has brought pollution under control, trade frictions continued. As one of the most advanced post industrial societies in the world, the Japanese people enjoyed prosperity and the benefits of a thriving middle-class society.
The death of the emperor, who had come to the throne in , meant the end in Japan of the long era that had included the war, the transwar, and the postwar as well. And the close of the Cold War in the West meant the end of the global geopolitical system that had provided Japan international shelter within the American imperium. Two years later the economic "bubble" burst, and Japan went into a lengthy recession. Another two years passed, and the Liberal Democratic Party "fell," much the way the Shogunate had collapsed so many years ago, without a revolution.
Six prime ministers held office between and , an orderly turnover that was nonetheless routinely described as political "chaos.
History & Background
The "1. Even more shocking to some was the increasing number of younger urban women who were refusing to marry or choosing not to bear children. The Gulf War of administered an international shock to Japan's Constitution, raising the post-Cold-War question of sending uniformed troops to participate in peacekeeping operations abroad and challenging the customary practices of postwar pacifism. And the nations of Asia, now increasingly important to Japan's economic and geopolitical relations, made ever more insistent demands on the Japanese to acknowledge and apologize for their earlier acts of colonialism and wartime aggression.
The years following will one day be viewed, no doubt, as another historical conjuncture of global import, not simply because the Cold War ended, but because so many other things were happening at the same time. Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck, Armonk: M. Sharpe, Timeline Exercise. After completing the chart, discuss with another student what is important about each of these events. Background to the Meiji Restoration By the middle of the nineteenth century, Japan's ruling Shogunate was a weak, feudal order, unable to control all its own domains, much less defend the nation against a threat from the Western powers.
The Meiji Restoration and Modernization The new leaders studied the political, economic, and social institutions of the Western powers and selectively adopted those suited to their purpose. Imperial Japan: Industrialization and Expansion This period was a time of social and economic change within the constitutional monarchy established in What was more, many of the soldiers who had fought in the war returned to their various domains, leaving the national government with almost no military power. Foreseeing a second civil conflict, the domains began comprehensive military reforms.
The Battle of Hakodate. Courtesy Hakodate City Museum. The domains were to be replaced by prefectures subordinate to a centralized government. The domain leaders were gathered in Tokyo for the announcement and ordered to reside in the capital. In any case, the domains disappeared, and the new government succeeded in unifying the country politically.
This laid the foundations for a remarkable social transformation over a short period. By rapidly modernizing, Japan aimed to build up its economic and military power and escape becoming a Western colony. Under the shogunate, farmers were the main targets of taxation. Depending on the harvest, revenues could vary greatly from year to year. The Meiji government moved to set the tax burden on landowners, issuing bonds on which the value of land was written. This gave the government a reliable source of tax revenue, paid in cash rather than rice, which provided the stability for further modernization.
The new government pushed forward with policies removing the previous class system—which had divided the population into samurai, farmers, artisans, and merchants—and establishing greater equality. It then introduced a three-year period of compulsory military service for males of 20 years of age. As the samurai no longer maintained their former dominance in the military realm, there was considerable discontent.
With the replacements of domains by prefectures, they lost their main employers. Their hereditary stipends were gradually abolished and replaced entirely by government bonds in The use of surnames—once a prerogative for samurai only—was extended to the general population, while an edict prohibiting the wearing of swords was a further blow to the identity of the warrior class.
He advocated the establishment of a national assembly allowing citizens to take part in government. The campaign grew from a small group of disgruntled samurai to encompass rich farmers and ultimately ordinary citizens. Against this background, the government began to move toward drawing up a constitution.
This was a pressing task for gaining Japan international recognition as a modern state and achieving revision of its unequal treaties, but the main reason for pushing ahead was the rise of the popular rights movement. In addition to demanding a national assembly, activists called for a constitution and produced many drafts themselves.
These often stressed citizen rights and democracy, while some were of a radical character, influenced by the French Constitution.
When he returned to Japan, he made adaptations to reflect the local situation and submitted the document to the Privy Council, an advisory body to the emperor established to deliberate constitutional drafts. The Privy Council discussed the legislation several times at meetings attended by Emperor Meiji before the Constitution of the Empire of Japan was promulgated on February 11, He combined in himself sovereignty, the supreme command of the army and navy, and the power to appoint and dismiss the cabinet. At the same time, citizens were granted a wide range of rights, including freedom of religion, occupation, and speech—within the limits of the Constitution.
The promulgation of the Meiji Constitution.
Courtesy Tokyo Metropolitan Library. This developed into the theory that the emperor himself was an organ of the state, as advocated by legal scholar Minobe Tatsukichi — in the twentieth century. At the same time, under a strictly literal reading, the emperor held supreme power. Originally written in Japanese. While the year was crucial to the fall of the shogunate and the establishment of a new government, understanding the historical context requires a wider focus.
Courtesy Yokohama Archives of History Opposition to the Shogunate Grows The confusion of the opening of the country transformed into rancor against foreigners.